language and gender theories
It provides a context of past and recent developments in language and gender theories .It focuses on two types of studies: 1. The writer refers to "underwear" (rather than "lingerie"). The Difference Theory (1990) As the title indicates, the difference theory is the idea that males and females really do converse differently. Babe is both approving (beauty) and disapproving (intelligence). The details of each theory are as follows. Your patronizing me needs me to feel that I am patronized. All are addressed to one or more imagined readers, but these vary from the fashion article (aimed at one questioner, but, by extension, to other women who share the questioner's wish for guidance) to the letter from the man hoping to divorce his wife (aimed at anyone who will trouble to read it). Their argument was an insistence on agreement of number - that anyone and everyone, being singular, could not properly correspond to plural pronouns. Texts A and B are extracts from two conversations between a male and a female speaker. independence vs. intimacy | For example, keep a running score (divided into male and female) of occasions when a student qualifies a question or request with just - Can I just have some help with my homework? Total Cards. Sex preferential speech features. For the most thorough account of the subject I have seen, go to Clive Grey's Overview of Work on Language and Gender Variation at: This is not an easy account to follow, but it names all the important (and many obscure) researchers in this area of study, and should enable any student to find leads to follow. Her most important works Language and Woman’s Place and Women’s Language threw light upon the possibility of discrimination through language use. In his book Men in Groups, the anthropologist states that male primates often hunted together in groups, while the females stayed behind as individuals. I don’t think it is true that women who are not in working environment and having no power in their community are more likely to claim higher social status by the use of standard forms. Thus, Lakoff does not only examine the specific language used by women, but also the language used about women. And what do they call themselves? In contrast to the list, which defends a simple choice of clothes, not changing with fashion, and a hairstyle that lasts for years (or decades), the fashion guide thinks of what women call accessories, such as the "heeled ankle-boots", "chunky leather belt", and the "sequinned bag and shoes". According to Holmes (1992) women are more status conscious than men. Equally terms denoting abstinence - like the noun phrase tight bitch - are disapproving. Among these are claims that women: Some of these statements are more amenable to checking, by investigation and observation, than others. This does not, of course, in any way, lower the value of their work. Lots of different English language theorists and their theories, summarised, that can be applied to the English Language and Gender exam question for AO2. Subject. But this is a far more limited claim than that made by Dale Spender, who identifies power with a male patriarchal order - the theory of dominance. We all have a 'face'. Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Though it will be helpful for the teacher to prepare some examples to clarify the discussion. The writer of Text 1 (the list) assumes that the reader is male, as he (or she) uses second-person "you" in most cases, where this obviously (because of the rest of the statement) refers to a man, or the sex in general. For example, women are more likely to say “Will you help me with these groceries, please ? (7) use of superpolite forms You could vary the noun from surgeon to doctor, consultant or anaesthetist and so on, to see if this changes the responses. If you wish to use print texts, you might find the following instructive: You may search for study materials by using Internet technologies. Save or open Susan Herring's article as a text file. I suppose that one of these studies may be true in one society but may not be valid and reliable in another society. of status or value) and in some cases different denotations. Eliminate sexism when addressing persons formally by: Eliminate sexual stereotyping of roles by: Here are extracts from six texts published in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. - Publication as eBook and book Today this may cause offence, so we see these forms as suitable for change. For an interesting and provocative comment on Cameron's ideas, you might consider this from Kate Burridge, in Political correctness: euphemism with attitude.  Zimmermann, Don H. / West, Candace. - It only takes five minutes Early in 2002, Lloyd's List (a newspaper for the shipping industry) announced that it was to change its practice of using the pronouns she and her to refer to ships. Zimmerman and West set out to investigate the presence of uncooperative features (interruptions, overlapping) of language in conversation and whether the gender of the speakers had any affect on the frequency of such features. Their findings challenge Lakoff's view of women's language. But Lakoff's remark about humour is much harder to quantify - some critics might reply that notions of humour differ between men and women. The text below comes from 101 ways to save money in wartime - a booklet published to give advice to families in the UK. This can be explained in terms of claiming and keeping turns - familiar enough ideas in analysing conversation. In many societies, different genders show a preference for using certain linguistic features more than others. Examples include: You can easily explain these distinctions (and others that you can find for yourself). For instance, male speaker refers to himself as boku or ore while women use watasi or atasi. 4.5 / 5 based on 27 ratings. ATTRACTIVE ACTRESSES/required for/DENTAL PROMOTIONS. Is this case going to be discussed and explained?
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